In China, after the COVID-19 outbreak, the researchers have been testing a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the disease diagnosis until prognosis. A recent study conducted by those researchers in China has found an effective treatment for Covid-19 patients with Weifen syndrome using a native Yinqiao powder.
The Yinqiao powder consisting of active ingredients, such as rutin and hesperidin might have anti‐COVID‐19 effects. The binding affinity of rutin to the main protease (3CLpro) of SARS‐CoV‐2 is higher than chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and remdesivir, and can inhibit COVID‐19 by downregulating IL‐6. Primarily in the study, through PPI analysis it was found that there were four anti‐COVID‐19 hub‐proteins – IL6, MAPK3, TNF, and TP53, some of which have been confirmed by clinical trials.
Researchers have screened 30 active ingredients of Yinqiao powder from TCMSP( traditional systems pharmacology) database and five ingredients, namely hesperetin, eriodictyol, luteolin, quercetin, and naringenin are verified by LC‐MS analysis. Through GO and KEGG analysis, the signalling pathways and the effect of Yingqiao powder in the regulation of IL‐6, MAPK3, TNF, and TP53 targets. It was discovered that the luteolin and IL6, TP53, and 3CLpro; quercetin and IL‐6; TP53 and 3CLpro; hesperetin and 3CL pro; naringenin and MAPK3 and 3CLpro; and eriodictyol and 3CLpro have a good affinity, which means that active ingredients of Yinqiao powder to treat COVID‐19 can be significant. Hesperetin has been found to have a high affinity for the spike protein and the helicase and protease sites on the ACE2 receptor.
Luteolin inhibits inflammation by inhibiting the expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate‐phosphodiesterases (PDEs) or PDE4 activity and intracellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAM)‐1. Naringenin might reduce lung injury by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including IL‐6, IL‐1β, TNF‐α, and TGF‐β, mediated by autophagy and pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, flavonoids can be significantly used as an active ingredient in treatments used for COVID‐19 and the pathways could be studied for effective targeted treatment.
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Reference: Lin, Haixiong, Xiaotong Wang, Minyi Liu, Minling Huang, Zhen Shen, Junjie Feng, Huijun Yang, Zige Li Junyan Gao and Xiaopeng Ye. (2021) Exploring the treatment of COVID‐19 with Yinqiao powder based on network pharmacology. Phytotherapy Research. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7012, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.7012.