Recent studies have shown that the immune response may last up to 4 months. An international study conducted by researchers from Germany, Italy, Sweden, China, and the USA aimed to determine the longevity of immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The researchers testes a cluster of patients from the Lombardy region, along with Swedish volunteers. The team detected the presence of elevated anti-receptor binding domain and anti-spike antibodies. The team found that levels of specific IgM and IgA declined after a month. Interestingly, specific IgG levels were stable for up to 6 months after infection.
The levels of anti-RBD and anti-S IgG antibodies started declining between 6-8 months. The decline in anti-S and anti-RBD IgA and IgM levels were noted 1-3 months after the infection. The antibody response existed in most COVID-19 patients as early as 2 weeks after symptom onset. Men had higher anti-RBD IgG antibody titers. Around 7% of patients who developed severe COVID-19 did not develop or had an extremely low level of antibodies after being infected. The team detected the presence of high levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific memory B and T-cells in the majority of patients 6-8 months after infection. This suggests long-term immunity and that development of immunity through vaccination might be possible.
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