Antibodies Induced by COVID-19 Vaccines

Vaccine drive is crucial to overcome the COVID19 condition caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Though the vaccine can induce spike-specific antibodies to neutralize the virus and RBD-specific Ig isotopes, the Fc mediated antibody gains more attention. The study primarily focuses on the mRNA vaccine that induces antibody response to antigens such as RBD, S1, S2, and SARS-CoV-2 spikes.

The vaccine was examined on 19 individuals of which seven were healthy individuals, eight were Covid19 positive (recovering), and 4 were covid19 negative individuals. Plasma for Fab mediated neutralization, other binding as C1q and C3q for Fc-mediated along with saliva was analyzed. No reactivity on the antigens was noticed for seven healthy donors, and in the case of the eight recovering Covid19-positive individuals, the plasma reports state different Ig responses against nucleoprotein.

Further, the comparison of expression for Ig and its isotopes was done and stated that the percentages of IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 responders were high in vaccines. The antibodies produced post-vaccination respond more for Spike-specific and RBD-specific IgG1 IgA1 and IgM. However, the positive responses were a little lower in saliva against S1, S2, and RBD antigens compared with spike antigen. The study provides the first evidence that SARS-CoV-2 immunization induces a greater breadth of spike-specific Ig isotypes and more potent binding capacities than natural infection.

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Ref Link: doi:10.1101/2021.05.11.21256972

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